Hugo Chávez’s failed coups, twenty-five years on15 July 2017
This year marks the 25th anniversary of two coup attempts in Venezuela, led by Hugo Chávez's MBR-200 movement, since then mythologized by the current government. It also marked, together with the Caracazo three years earlier, the end of a period of remarkable political stability in Venezuela and the beginning of a crisis from which the country with the world's largest proven oil reserves has yet to recover.
Despite massive social discontent and persistent rumours that a military coup was underway, the two uprisings in February and November 1992 came a surprise to many political analysts. After all, Venezuela had been …